Archives for posts with tag: gig economy

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It is not the strongest of a species that survives, nor the most intelligent, it is the one most adaptable to change, that survives. Charles Darwin.

The growth of civilisation was made possible because every able bodied person is capable of producing more goods than they need for their own personal survival, bearing in mind that human societies were formed and flourished long before mechanisation.

Work, as we now know it, was established in the Industrial Revolution. Workers were not paid for what they produce, but the minimum that the industrialists could get away with, whilst keeping all the produce and the profits from their exploited workers.

To be honest, I think that overall we’ve been pretty tolerant of this over the last two and a half centuries, as far as I know not a single factory or business owner has been strung up, not least for the exploitation, beating, maiming and killing of children in the work place. Measures to support and protect workers were hard fought for and hard won by workers unions, which are, to this day, utterly despised by many business owners, conservatives and, what we now call, the right wing media.

I think it is remarkable that contempt for workers seems to exist in direct proportion to the greed of factory/corporate/business owners. Perhaps it is just an extension, from feudal times, of contempt for the peasantry and perhaps that helps explain the contempt of the Tory party, which is establishment to the bone, who are busily dragging us back to, for them, the halcyon days of Poor Houses/Work Houses and Debtors Prisons.

Work, or employment, is one of those encultured norms, like Royalty and Christmas, that are so difficult to challenge. Working class people who vote Tory, called deferential voters, also tend to follow the Daily Express, Daily Mail, and latterly The Sun, line in despising our Unions, and are frequently likened, with a fair degree of accuracy, to turkeys voting for Christmas.

The corporate media is well practised in the dark arts of division, sowing and breeding hatred between different groups of tax paying workers. In the recent Birmingham bin strike, the Daily Mail headline, or one of them, was “Birmingham bin strike costing taxpayers £40,000 a day”. Stoking discord and petty hatreds is pretty standard stuff, as George Osborne proved in his 2012 Conference speech, “Where is the fairness, we ask, for the shift-worker, leaving home in the dark hours of the early morning, who looks up at the closed blinds of their next door neighbour sleeping off a life on benefits?” Sadly, it works like a charm, preventing workers from seeing or doing anything about the daily reality of being robbed blind in the work place and the accumulation of wealth made on the back of their daily toil and even being paid a minimum wage that is not enough to live on.

Not content with getting away with paying a minimum wage, many companies now exploit workers through zero hours contracts and what Damien Green, then Work and Pensions Secretary, called the exciting Gig Economy, saying it had huge potential, but omitted to say, ‘for worker exploitation’.

It is a measure of the tenacity and determination of workers, even the most exploited and befuddled by political and media rhetoric, that their ability to adapt and change under the most trying conditions imposed upon them is taken for granted and exploited by their oppressors.

Not so their oppressors, the merest hint of actually paying their fair share of taxes or decent wages is enough to send them into apoplectic rage, resentment and the bribery of politicians to maintain their accustomed and cosy lives of greed and plenty at our expense.

It is in the nature of human vanity that those who enjoy the benefits of the current system the most think of themselves as the strongest and most intelligent, but they are the least adaptable.

The Tories despise the rise of social media and its existence as an open democracy for ordinary people. They simply cannot adapt and can be frequently seen walking into the brick wall of their own privilege and ignorance and would like nothing better than to shut social media down. The Snoopers Charter, under the guise of preventing terrorism is, in reality, a means to snoop into the lives of ordinary people who they uniformly despise.

Unable to adapt, they choose repression and when challenged they bluster, hide, lie and deny, or besmirch and vilify those who oppose them.

2018 is going to be an interesting year, because, if Darwin is right, then the end is swiftly approaching for the Tory party which is ripping us all off and has plunged the country into chaos, not least in our greatest ever achievement, our NHS.

It is not my intention to suggest that the Tories should die, and, like the dinosaurs, become extinct, but it is my personal and fervent hope that, as a political party, they disappear into the vault of history and never darken our lives again. Then we might begin to address the oppression and exploitation that has bedeviled us for centuries and achieve a change for the better for all ordinary people, the many, not the few.

KOG. 07 January 2018.

http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/britain-1700-to-1900/industrial-revolution/children-in-the-industrial-revolution/

http://www.sarahalbeebooks.com/2012/01/poorhouses/

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-4794372/Birmingham-bin-strike-costing-taxpayers-40-000-day.html#ixzz53RkFQZlo

https://www.newstatesman.com/blogs/politics/2012/10/george-osbornes-speech-conservative-conference-full-text

http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/politics/dwp-gig-economy-damian-green-speech-holiday-minimum-wage-sick-pay-hours-a7421071.html

http://www.wired.co.uk/article/ip-bill-law-details-passed

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The wealth generated by robotics and Artificial Intelligence (AI) will be owned by the companies which exploit it, exactly the same model which has exploited human workers since the Industrial Revolution.

We have been sold a myth that robots will free us from work and provide us with more leisure time. The reality is that robots make human workers redundant who are then excluded from the only, traditional, way we have of generating any income at all. There is no hint coming from government or business that the current polarisation and privatisation of worker generated wealth will be addressed, which robotics will only exacerbate. Talk of a universal guaranteed income is still a fringe issue and so far does not appear to be being considered or discussed by government. Inequality, poverty and social exclusion have rocketed under the Tories, the notion of the poor sharing in a ‘common’ wealth would never occur to them. The very idea that the poor have a right to live is one that is repugnant to the Tories, they are, after all, the party which wants to scrap the human rights act and replace it with a bill that tells us what our duties are, although this has been quietly shelved until after Brexit when they look forward to doing whatever they like.

To be clear, the problem isn’t technology, AI or robotics, the problem is how wealth is, or, more correctly, is not, being shared and the structure and meaning of work itself.

It is a common idea that we, people, work to live but it has never been clearer than under the present regime that the view from the top is that we live to work, which is exactly what is behind the Tories striver/scrounger rhetoric and the demonisation of anyone needing social security in order to live and the present culture of depriving people of the means of survival in order to force them into any bullshit job regardless of whether it actually pays people enough to live on. Once in whatever precarious, insecure, employment people are forced into, if their income is inadequate to live on, the DWP will hound and sanction workers to take on extra work or jobs and force them into attending ritualised bullshit courses in job seeking.

The government knows exactly how the job market operates and is intimately aware that work is becoming ever more precarious because they are instrumental in making it so, whether by commission or omission. Zero hours contracts and the enormous rise in self employment supports the ‘Gig economy’ which Damian Green thinks so much of. Green described escalating job insecurity with no ‘stable hours, holiday pay, sick pay, or pensions’ as ‘exciting’, but the lived reality of which is clearly not something he’ll ever have to bother his little head about.

In the growing world of robotics the reality is that machines are better treated than workers due to ownership. Companies must ensure that the maintenance and care for robotics is adequate for continued trouble free operation, not so workers, who, once they leave their place of work, are left to their own devices regardless that they may not be being paid enough for their own maintenance and care. Technology can be replaced with impunity, it has no rights, scrapped or recycled, it’s just technology. Workers thrown on the human scrap heap are demonised for not trying hard enough to stay in work or finding new work when the entire structure of work is loaded against them by design and policy.

Workers generally are participants in wealth creation and are the engine that drives profits but are excluded from participating in the wealth they create because the fruits of labour and the wealth labour generates is privatised and ‘belongs’ to the company or business employees work for. Whatever rights and protections workers may or may not have at work they have never included a just share in the wealth they generate, whilst there is legislation for the insult that is the minimum wage (which is not even enough to live on), it is being systematically undermined in the Gig economy which is driven by corporate greed.

In the world of work, technology and robotics is a gift to any business which can use it to replace human workers, who they can discard with impunity. The company can continue to generate wealth for itself and even increase it through the exploitation of technology, whilst human kind become redundant as a viable source of labour on which they are forced to depend, with nothing to fill the vacuum left by technology which serves to deprive workers of even the meanest survival.

If ever there was a time to revolutionise the entire meaning of work and humanity, this is it. If work is increasingly becoming redundant for millions of workers the answer is not to punish people and drive them into penury and death through starvation or despair and suicide. The question ceases to be whether there are enough jobs to go round but is there enough wealth? Should we not all become share holders in unearned wealth, a situation currently exclusive to company share holders and stock market casinos? The entire world should be our common home and it’s resources common to all not the exclusive property of corporations. But first we need a revolution in thinking. We have become hide bound in our ideas of the nature of work, and exploitation, accepting it as just the way things are when clearly work is no longer an adequate means of securing our survival.

Profit is such an easy word for the exploitative use and abuse of the labour which creates it, whether human or machine. Britain is lauded as one of the richest nations on earth, but the wealth of the nation is in the hands of a very few people and from which the vast majority are excluded, presently and historically. Profits are and always have been put before people, the very people who create it, and it is completely bass ackwards. It may seem a silly, even, crazy question but it needs to be asked, which is more important, people or money? Life or wealth? If wealth does not support life, what is it good for? Hoarding in tax havens? Polarised and gathered for the benefit of the few whilst the many are simply excluded and abandoned? Because that is the current situation and which the Tory government is dedicated to maintaining in a ‘free market’, which is anything but free for the majority of real, actual, living people.

Sanctioning the poor is simply insane, we should be doing the currently unthinkable, sanctioning wealth. The corruption in government is that it allows the wealth takers to dictate policy in which inequality and poverty are entirely beneficial to the interests of those for whom the accumulation of wealth is their only interest along with the privileged living it enables and the continued exploitation of the poor as servants to power and privilege. Killing us off may be expedient, something the Tories have a very casual attitude towards, but it is bestially immoral in practice. The reality of the accumulation of obscene wealth is that it is a crime against humanity, a crime against life and the lives, past and present, of those who actually slog their guts out to generate it.

Those who exploit the planet and life are complicit in genocide. According to Poverty.com, “It is estimated that a person dies of hunger or hunger-related causes every ten seconds… Sadly, it is children who die most often.” That is 8,640 people a day (minimum) or 3,153,600 a year. Hunger is not an individual or even a community human failing, it is always a sociopolitical failing. People are abandoned to death in a world of plenty from which we, ordinary people, are being increasingly excluded.

The Tories are entwined in unholy matrimony to obscene wealth and are complicit in death though poverty every day. Yes, even globally. They are incapable of reform or thinking any other way and that is why the only solution is to continue to work to expose them and rid ourselves of them. Poverty is good for ‘business’ and the Tories are in the business of creating more poverty and punishing the poor and further depriving us all of the means of survival. Their existence is a stain on humanity and they deserve no better from us than we get from them, a big ‘Fuck off!’

KOG.

https://www.theguardian.com/business/2017/may/01/may-day-report-by-mps-damns-growing-uk-gig-economy

http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/politics/dwp-gig-economy-damian-green-speech-holiday-minimum-wage-sick-pay-hours-a7421071.html

http://www.poverty.com/

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In the Tory mindset, the lives of ordinary people have no intrinsic value. Our value is measured only in terms of our utility in creating wealth, all other aspects of our humanity are treated as useless and a drain on the ‘free’ markets, including thought, child birth and rearing and our most basic human rights and needs.

The financial markets are treated as more valuable than life, yet without human life there would be no markets at all.

The Tories value as supreme those who control and hoard money and expect the rest of us to feed their greed. Anyone who is not participating in feeding market greed is treated as superfluous to requirements, humiliated, punished and eradicated through deceitful policies of attrition and persecution.

David Freud said, “people who are poorer should be prepared to take the biggest risks as they have the least to lose.” and he also said disabled people are, “not worth the full wage”.

Anyone who measures the worth of life in monetary terms is a stain and a blight on humanity.

Currently, the duplicitous National Living Wage, which is actually the new minimum wage, is £7.50 per hour for those over 25.

£7.50 per hour is an insult to our humanity. They are telling us that an hours labour is worth less than one bloody plastic DVD, less than a mass produced Aluminium 20cm Saucepan from Tesco. The current real living wage is £9.75 per hour for London and £8.45 per hour everywhere else, and that’s not much to write home and brag about.

We’re so used to being totally undervalued we undervalue ourselves. We’re treated like shit and the Tories get away with insulting us with £7.50 per hour and companies are doing everything they can to deny us full time work or even the minimum wage in Damian Green’s bastard (sorry – “exciting”) gig economy.

Britain is now a country where poor, disadvantaged, traumatised and destitute people must be punished and forced to pay a premium rate penalty for their poverty. The Tories are stealing even the basic necessities of life and then punishing those they already persecute.

Oxford is threatening homeless people with a £2,500 fine because they are “having a detrimental effect… on the quality of life of those in the locality”. When you are literally on the floor, homeless and destitute, non-people, persona non grata, only a moron or a sadist would think the solution is a £2,500 poverty penalty.

Let’s take it as self evident that Tories (who are barely holding Oxford) are morons but they are sadistic morons and they are running a pogrom of social cleansing. There is a magic money tree for the rich and eradication for the everyone else.

They began with poor, sick and disabled people (the war on the poor) and have been escalating it ever since. They have weaponised money and are conducting economic warfare. They have absolute, sovereign control of the money supply. If people go to the banks or money lenders for loans all they obtain is a debt plus interest. People bargain their labour for debt, and if their labour is so undervalued that it doesn’t even provide enough to live on, they become debt slaves. If people want an education, they now begin their working life as debt slaves.

We have been robbed of our bargaining power, health, safety and employment rights. We have no recourse to justice because justice is only available to those who can afford for it.

We are slaves to market forces, the average market rent is £921 a month and they have destroyed social housing.

A new indignity has just emerged, hygiene poverty, personal hygiene or eat and we even have a tampon tax.

All of this, all of it, is driven by government policy. There are no natural forces at work here, the natural primal needs of life are being wilfully denied and penalised. Living has become a crime for which millions of people are being punished, sanctioned and murdered.

And the only defence the Tories have is to lie about it, to parliament and via the media and their own propaganda in which they invest millions of pounds.

They have no legitimacy, they have attempted to buy what meagre authority they claim to have, they have no mandate, no manifesto. We do not have a government, we have a cabal of thieves, a mafia, an extreme terrorist organisation, on organised crime syndicate, a bunch of gloating, braying, thugs.

They won’t walk out so they must be pushed, by every means of resistance and protest we have available, words, non-violent action, resistance and civil disobedience. They have the means to resist violence and will not hesitate to use it, not least because our lives are so cheap to them and they have nothing but contempt for us. But constant, sustained and relentless pressure they cannot prevent and they cannot suppress. Freedom of expression is available to everyone, the right to speak, the right to write, the right to protest, the right to peaceful assembly, these freedoms exist by right of being alive, inalienable, self evident, contained in our being, constrained only by fear, expressed by boldness and courage in the face of an implacable, brutal, enemy. We can spread information like the plague or virus they think we are, informing others.

We have a government in waiting, a national leader worth having, supported by ever growing numbers as people wake up to the reality of lethal Tory brutality. It is only a matter of time. The Tories must go! If you will pardon me for stating what should be the absolutely bleeding obvious to anyone but a Tory, people must come first for life and living.

KOG. 27 July 2017

https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2012/nov/23/lord-freud-welfare-poor-risk

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/av/uk-politics-29630529/pmqs-cameron-and-miliband-and-freud-wage-comments

https://www.theguardian.com/society/2017/jul/26/oxford-homeless-people-face-fines-belongings-doorways

http://www.oxfordshireguardian.co.uk/oxfordshire-county-council-elections-2017/

https://www.theguardian.com/business/2017/mar/13/uk-average-annual-rents-fall-stamp-duty-hike-letting

https://www.theguardian.com/society/2017/jul/27/poverty-driving-people-to-choose-between-eating-or-keeping-clean-in-kind-direct?CMP=share_btn_fb

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Philip Hammond recently said to Andrew Marr, “Public sector pay raced ahead of private sector pay after the crash in 2008/9 and taking public sector pay, before pension contributions, that gap is now closed, public and private sector pay on average are round about the same.”

This statement by Philip Hammond is a golden nugget, a mini master class on the arrogance of privilege.

Prior to 2010 public sector pay was subject to modest rules, improvements and protections, teachers, nurses and other public sector workers were not getting rich off the fat of the land, running huge investment portfolios or making off with million pound bonuses. They might get cost of living rises, but little more than that. They are just part of the vast body of workers, public and private, who live modest lives on modest means and who keep Britain running, day by day, year in year out.

What they did not do, any more than those struggling in poverty, or disabled people or young or old people, was to crash the global economy. Had they done so it is certain that, unlike the way bankers were treated, the government and the media would have screamed it from the roof tops. Oh, but hang on, they did scream it from the roof tops. Benefit scroungers, work shy and lazy, sleeping off a life on benefits, generations of unemployed, ‘cuts for the poor’, George Osborne cried, ‘how else are we to pay down the debt?’

Private sector wages took a hit after the crash and so, in the words of Hammond, ‘Public sector pay raced ahead of private sector pay’, clever mealy mouthed words which justified cuts to public sector wages to drive them down to match dismal, struggling, private sector wages. A gap which Hammond now proudly announces is closed. Fairness and justice for all, the Tory way.

In the exciting new private sector gig economy, of low pay, no pay, zero hours contracts, we can’t have the public sector undermining the first world free market slide into third world, sweat shop, employment. Globalisation and liberalised markets means everyone must scrabble to the bottom and be grateful if the food banks haven’t run out of food.

And if public sector workers complain, they get told firmly, ‘There’s no magic money tree you know’. Except for the rich, of course, people like multi millionaire Philip Hammond who has never suffered a days austerity in his life.

It is the privilege of the privileged to kick and cull the poor. It is a time honoured tradition, like conkers and casual racism.

No one, but no one, screams louder against social justice than those who profit from injustice, for whom inequality is a way of life and for whom money is the measure of their own worth and who, by dint of their own excessive wealth, demand ever more. They give tax cuts to the rich and arrest beggars on the streets. They own multiple properties and despise the homeless. They have fancy schemes to avoid paying taxes and stash their wealth in tax havens yet hound and prosecute the cash in hand window cleaner as a bad citizen if every penny is not accounted for and taxed.

It would be laughable were it not so stinkingly mean, if Hammond wasn’t really just a grasping crook and a dismal throw back to the days of work houses and gruel for the poor, taking vicious pleasure in flogging the urchin who dares to ask for a penn’orth more gruel.

And the greatest tragedy of all is. after all their lies, of hounding the poor to death, of stealing the food from the mouths of children, finding the food bank empty and facing another horrific week of poverty and despair, Tory propaganda is so successful that vast numbers of the poor go to the polling booth and vote for them. That is the Tories greatest success and the worst travesty of any form of natural justice. Or, perhaps the very worst travesty of all, is the Tories delight in mocking and shaming the deceived poor, laughing and jeering in parliament when they cut their incomes further.

Hidden in Hammond’s weasel words lies a profound truth, in the pursuit of wealth our lives are less than bargaining chips, of less value than wheat or steel or the minerals poverty workers drag from the earth, rather we are expendable stock. They care nothing for the substance of our lives or whether we live or die.

The poor are suffered to exist only to serve the interests of the rich.

KOG. 17 July 1017

http://www.mirror.co.uk/news/politics/tory-accidentally-reveals-how-much-10666222

http://www.express.co.uk/news/politics/827571/Theresa-May-s-adviser-attacks-people-who-pay-workers-cash-in-hand

 

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Workfare
Sanctions
Jobcentres – Britain’s secret penal system
Zero hours contracts
Cuts to workplace protections
Cuts to legal aid
Gig economy
Getting rid of safety ‘red tape’
Scrapping social housing
Scrapping housing benefit for young people
Food banks
Child poverty
Extreme inequality
The ‘free’ market economy
Government attacks on disabled people
The intention to scrap the Human Rights Act
Grenfell – murder
War on the poor
Class war

The above is a list, just a list, although there are plenty of supporting links below, it is a list I am not going to expand on as I have been doing that for five years. The list uses words familiar to anyone paying attention to life in Britain today under the most brutal Tory regime since Victorian times when the poor were brutalised in work houses for the crime of being poor.

The end of the British slave trade was finally made law in 1838 through the passing of the Slavery Abolition Act, it was achieved only through bitter struggle against powerful resistance from those who reaped vast profits from slavery, including the British establishment, amongst whom was an ancestor of David Cameron, the clergy, small businessmen and a great many widows who, then as now, outlived their husbands.

The law, however, did not mean changed hearts or minds and abolition was only achieved by generous compensation for the loss of ‘property’ to slave owners. Slaves received not a brass farthing for their years of abject misery and the abolition of slavery was far from the end of their misery as no provision was made to aid them in their newly ‘given’ ‘freedom’ and they were also compelled under the Act to provide 45 hours of unpaid labour each week to their former masters for a further four years after their supposed liberation. So not only did they have to contribute to the cost of their own liberty, they were cast adrift with nothing, and plantation owners were quick to exploit them further.

It would be a mistake to think that the mentality of the establishment, the so called financial elites and the aristocracy has changed significantly despite hard won legal protections for ordinary people and since 2010, and exploiting the financial crash, the Tories have ruthlessly set about the brutal control and exploitation of the lives of ordinary people in Britain. Put the list above in a pot and shake it, tip it out and what will appear is ‘Slave Nation’. We may have moved on from bull whips, floggings and chains, but the attitude has not changed one bit, nor the desire to exploit and impoverish people for profit.

Whether it is Iain Duncan Smith and his bringing to the DWP the Nazi slogan “Arbeit macht frei”, in his own words “work actually helps free people”, from the German death camps in his welfare reforms, to Damien Green celebrating the gig economy and insecure employment as exciting, “Just a few years ago the idea of a proper job meant a job that brings in a fixed monthly salary, with fixed hours, paid holidays, sick pay, a pension scheme and other contractual benefits. But the gig economy has changed all that.” Adding, “The potential is huge and the change is exciting.” For him, maybe, for us, it means misery and exploitation.

At what point do we stop and admit what’s staring us in the face? Cameron used our money to pay off the bankers debts and then passed on the resultant economic black hole to us and introduced swingeing austerity. That is not in any degree anything less that a slaver would do to pay down his debts.

In 2015 after David Cameron had pledged not to cut Tax Credits, in his budget speech George Osborne said, “As Alistair Darling has said, the sheer scale of Tax Credits is “subsidising lower wages in a way that was never intended.” So those who oppose any savings to Tax Credits will have to explain how on earth they propose to eliminate the deficit, let alone run a surplus and pay down debt.” At that time the Office for National Statistics reported that ‘Britain’s richest 1% own as much as poorest 55% of population’. Yet who did Cameron and Osborne target for living profligate lifestyles with their wide screen TVs and tattoos and their culture of entitlement? The poorest people in society, only swapping the bullwhip for food banks and sanctions and suicide. The rich got richer.

To borrow the words of George Osborne, those who oppose any suggestion that we are a slave nation will have to explain how on earth they deny the facts sitting right under their noses. Today’s slavers praise the bravery and courage of our frontline workers and yet cheer as they vote down a pay rise for them. Grenfell Tower was a scene of multiple murders because the lives of slaves don’t matter, their lives entirely expendable, deprived of the most basic protections, safety measures and procedures.

Modern slavery differs only in the means used to enforce it, our lives are just as expendable and our slave masters could not give one damn as long as they enjoy the rich rewards they steal from us to maintain their lives of luxury.

There are many, many reasons why Theresa May must go, along with the rest of her party of the privileged, but the main reason she must go is that she’s a modern day slaver driving Britain ever deeper into a slave nation. Today’s slaves don’t even qualify for food and housing.

KOG. 12 July 2017

http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/politics/benefits-sanctions-plunging-claimants-into-hunger-and-depression-cuts-dwp-government-theresa-may-a7446166.html

http://www.boycottworkfare.org/event/day-of-action-against-sanctions-workfare-cuts-to-esa/

https://www.crimeandjustice.org.uk/resources/benefit-sanctions-britains-secret-penal-system

http://www.standard.co.uk/news/politics/theresa-may-rules-out-ban-on-zerohours-contracts-after-taylor-review-calls-for-action-to-protect-gig-a3585186.html

https://www.tuc.org.uk/workplace-issues/health-and-safety/workers-memorial-day/government-cuts-vital-health-and-safety-%E2%80%98red

https://www.theguardian.com/law/2016/oct/11/legal-aid-cuts-two-tier-system-amnesty-international-law-justice

http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/politics/dwp-gig-economy-damian-green-speech-holiday-minimum-wage-sick-pay-hours-a7421071.html

Government ministers ‘congratulated themselves’ for cutting fire regulations

https://www.theguardian.com/housing-network/2017/mar/10/scrapping-housing-benefit-18-year-olds-hammond-budget

https://www.theguardian.com/society/2016/jan/04/end-of-council-housing-bill-secure-tenancies-pay-to-stay

https://www.trusselltrust.org/2017/04/25/uk-foodbank-use-continues-rise/

http://www.cpag.org.uk/child-poverty-facts-and-figures

https://www.equalitytrust.org.uk/about-inequality

http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/home-news/disability-benefits-motabililty-rule-change-disabled-people-vehicles-dwp-a7191636.html

https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2017/jun/25/grenfell-victims-murdered-by-political-decisions-says-john-mcdonnell

http://www.liverpoolecho.co.uk/news/liverpool-news/fury-over-catastrophic-war-poor-12719128

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/jul/12/british-history-slavery-buried-scale-revealed

https://blogs.spectator.co.uk/2015/07/summer-budget-2015-full-text-of-george-osbornes-speech/

https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2014/may/15/britains-richest-1-percent-own-same-as-bottom-55-population